2020 October 01 Thursday
ചെയ്യേണ്ടത് ചെയ്യാതിരിക്കുന്നതും ചെയ്യരുതാത്തത് ചെയ്യുന്നതും ഒരുപോലെ തെറ്റാണ് -തിരുക്കുറള്‍

5 year plans

SHAKKIR THOTTIKKAL

It was in 1951 that Five year Plan were started in India. Agriculture was the First Five Year Plan an Second Plan which began in 1956, industrial  development  given priority. Agricultural development  was necessary in solving the problem of food shortage. The only way to achieve it was that  more land should be brought under cultivation. The first step towards this direction was the introduction of land legislations. Peasants should be provided with land. Different types of land lordisrn such as Zamindari Jagirdari, Jotedari, Mahalwari, etc. Were prevailing in many states. Though Zamindari was abolished by the Central Government in 1948 itself, the state governments  were not ready to implement it. The landlords who were not interested in cultivating the land left their land waste. Food production could not be increased  because of the failure in implementing comprehensive land  legislation. The other Methods adopted improve food production were the mechanization of agriculture use of high – yielding hybrid seeds. Chemical fertilisers,  pesticides etc. Mechanical ploughs  harvesters  and threshers were also introduced. Agricultural research institutes were  established for the  development  of high – yielding  varieties  of seeds. Agricultural colleges were established to produce agricultural scientists.

First Five Year Plan (1951 – 56)

The  objective of the first five  year plan was to raise the standard of living  of the people. The plan accorded  highest priority to agriculture, including  irrigation and power projects.

The Second Five Year Plan (1956 – 61)  

The most important  aim of the second five year plan was the  establishment  of a  socialistic  pattern of society. The Plan aimed  at 25 percent  in  crease  in national  income, rapid industrialization  with  particular  emphasis on the  development  of  basic  and heavy  industries, large expansion of  employment  opportunities  and reduction  of in equalities  in income.

The Third Five Year Plan (1961 – 66)  

The  objectives  of the third Plan were to secure an increase in the nationality  income, to achieve  self  sufficiency  in food grains  and increase in agricultural  production, to expand  basic industries  like steel, Chemicals  fuel  and power. The  finalization  of the  fourth  plan was delayed  due  to the situation created  by the indo – Pakistan  conflict , devaluation of the currency, rise in prices and erosion of resources  available  for plan purposes.

The Fourth  Five Year Plan (1969- 74)

The fourth  plan Emphasis  fast growth of income that would provide employment  and higher standard  of living. The plan laid particular emphasis on improving the conditions  of the less privileged  and weaker sections  of the society.

The Fifth Five Year Plan (1974 – 79)

The major objectives of the plan were to achieve self reliance  and to adopt measures for raising  the  consumption  standards of the people  living below of the poverty line.  The Plan  also gave  high  priority to bringing  inflation under control and to achieve stability in the economic  situation. The fifth plan was  ended one year ahead with the close of the annual plan 1977 – 78 and work was initiated  for a new plan for the next five years with new  priorities  and  programmes.

The Sixth Five Year Plan ( 1980 – 85)

To achieve  a significant  increase in the rate of growth of economy , to reduce  poverty  and unemployment, to promote policies  for controlling  the growth of population to  reduce poverty and unemployment  were the aim of this plan.

The Seventh Five Year Plan (1985 – 90)

The government changed  the focus of the earlier  plans. The economy  was opened  up for the private sector. The private sector was held  responsible  for productivity, growth, exports modernization and technological  development. The government  retained control over the  economy  but the main factor was the private sector.

The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992 – 97)

This Plan gave priority  to create  adequate  employment  to achieve  full employment  by the turn of the century. Under the eighth  plan significant restructuring , liberalization and globalization  have taken place  in the  Indian economy foreign  companies  started  their shops in India  Foreign  direct  investment  began to move into the Indian market.

The Ninth  Five Year Plan  (1997 -2002)

The plan expected  a growth rate of 6.5 percent  in all production targets. The  objectives  of the  plan have  evolved from the common minimum programme of the government . it gave priority to  agriculture  and rural  development  with a view  to generate productive employment  and eradication of poverty . it also expected  acceleration  of economic growth, ensuring  food and nutrition  to the poor, providing  basic needs like safe drinking  water, primary health care universal primary education, population control, empowerment  of women and backward classes,  promotion  of Panchayati Raj and co-operative sector.

The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002 -2007)

It aims at a higher growth  rate at 8.5 per cent The Planning  commission proposed  some specific and monitorable  targets  for reduction  of poverty , provision for employment  generation  and safe  drinking  water to all village by 2012. It  also  put forward drastic measures to reduce  fiscal deficit and to increase  investments.  It also suggested faster privatization  and speeding up of reforms in agriculture and in labour relations.

 

Advt.


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