It was in 1951 that Five year Plan were started in India. Agriculture was the First Five Year Plan an Second Plan which began in 1956, industrial development given priority. Agricultural development was necessary in solving the problem of food shortage. The only way to achieve it was that more land should be brought under cultivation. The first step towards this direction was the introduction of land legislations. Peasants should be provided with land. Different types of land lordisrn such as Zamindari Jagirdari, Jotedari, Mahalwari, etc. Were prevailing in many states. Though Zamindari was abolished by the Central Government in 1948 itself, the state governments were not ready to implement it. The landlords who were not interested in cultivating the land left their land waste. Food production could not be increased because of the failure in implementing comprehensive land legislation. The other Methods adopted improve food production were the mechanization of agriculture use of high – yielding hybrid seeds. Chemical fertilisers, pesticides etc. Mechanical ploughs harvesters and threshers were also introduced. Agricultural research institutes were established for the development of high – yielding varieties of seeds. Agricultural colleges were established to produce agricultural scientists.
First Five Year Plan (1951 – 56)
The objective of the first five year plan was to raise the standard of living of the people. The plan accorded highest priority to agriculture, including irrigation and power projects.
The Second Five Year Plan (1956 – 61)
The most important aim of the second five year plan was the establishment of a socialistic pattern of society. The Plan aimed at 25 percent in crease in national income, rapid industrialization with particular emphasis on the development of basic and heavy industries, large expansion of employment opportunities and reduction of in equalities in income.
The Third Five Year Plan (1961 – 66)
The objectives of the third Plan were to secure an increase in the nationality income, to achieve self sufficiency in food grains and increase in agricultural production, to expand basic industries like steel, Chemicals fuel and power. The finalization of the fourth plan was delayed due to the situation created by the indo – Pakistan conflict , devaluation of the currency, rise in prices and erosion of resources available for plan purposes.
The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969- 74)
The fourth plan Emphasis fast growth of income that would provide employment and higher standard of living. The plan laid particular emphasis on improving the conditions of the less privileged and weaker sections of the society.
The Fifth Five Year Plan (1974 – 79)
The major objectives of the plan were to achieve self reliance and to adopt measures for raising the consumption standards of the people living below of the poverty line. The Plan also gave high priority to bringing inflation under control and to achieve stability in the economic situation. The fifth plan was ended one year ahead with the close of the annual plan 1977 – 78 and work was initiated for a new plan for the next five years with new priorities and programmes.
The Sixth Five Year Plan ( 1980 – 85)
To achieve a significant increase in the rate of growth of economy , to reduce poverty and unemployment, to promote policies for controlling the growth of population to reduce poverty and unemployment were the aim of this plan.
The Seventh Five Year Plan (1985 – 90)
The government changed the focus of the earlier plans. The economy was opened up for the private sector. The private sector was held responsible for productivity, growth, exports modernization and technological development. The government retained control over the economy but the main factor was the private sector.
The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992 – 97)
This Plan gave priority to create adequate employment to achieve full employment by the turn of the century. Under the eighth plan significant restructuring , liberalization and globalization have taken place in the Indian economy foreign companies started their shops in India Foreign direct investment began to move into the Indian market.
The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997 -2002)
The plan expected a growth rate of 6.5 percent in all production targets. The objectives of the plan have evolved from the common minimum programme of the government . it gave priority to agriculture and rural development with a view to generate productive employment and eradication of poverty . it also expected acceleration of economic growth, ensuring food and nutrition to the poor, providing basic needs like safe drinking water, primary health care universal primary education, population control, empowerment of women and backward classes, promotion of Panchayati Raj and co-operative sector.
The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002 -2007)
It aims at a higher growth rate at 8.5 per cent The Planning commission proposed some specific and monitorable targets for reduction of poverty , provision for employment generation and safe drinking water to all village by 2012. It also put forward drastic measures to reduce fiscal deficit and to increase investments. It also suggested faster privatization and speeding up of reforms in agriculture and in labour relations.
ബാബരി മസ്ജിദ് തകര്ക്കുന്നതില് പങ്കാളി; ഇപ്പോള് ജീവിതം പള്ളികള്ക്കൊപ്പം, കേള്ക്കണം, മുന് കര്സേവകിന്റെ ജീവിതകഥ